The C is for Catalog

It seems intuitive enough that the size of an organism’s genome should be related to its evolutionary complexity. As a general rule, this tends to be true. But look within a class of organisms and you’ll find a great deal of genome size – also known as a C-value – variation. A newt’s genome, for example, is ten times the size of a frog’s.

This discrepancy between genome size and evolutionary complexity is known as the C-value paradox and it has long captured the imagination of biologists. Genome sequencing and annotation have revealed that a great amount of an organism’s genome is non-coding, suggesting that a great deal of genetic content may be gained or lost without affecting the so-called “evolutionary complexity” of the organism (though whether this non-coding DNA is truly “junk” is still up for debate).

In a recent Nucleic Acids Research paper, Gregory et al introduce another toolset to aid in our understand of genome size: the genome size databases. Three separate databases catalog the genome size statistics for various Plants, Animals and Fungi respectively, collectively covering >10,000 species. While various methods of estimating genome size may produce conflicting estimates of genome size (caveat emptor!), these tools should serve to help guide analyses and experiments of genome size evolution. Specifically, by enabling comparisons of genome size across multiple phylogenetic levels, these datasets should facilitate a better understanding of where the genome size/complexity relationship falls off.

histogram
As an interesting side note, the authors mention a few particular findings in fungi. The histogram of genome size in Fungi (see the figure) tends to be tighter than in Plants and Animals, with almost all taxa within the range of 1C or 10-60 Mb of DNA. That said, a few species appear to exhibit considerable intraspecific variation. While this may be due to the aforementioned methodological errors, the authors consider that dikaryotic hybrids and heterokaryotes may contribute to this observation. It seems that we may only be scratching the surface of genome size variation in Fungi and if genome size is indeed rapidly evolving in Fungi, they may serve to as good models to study this evolutionary phenomenon.

Experimental cooperative evolution

Blogging about Peer-Reviewed ResearchA paper in Nature this week describes how a few mutations can alter the interactions between species in a biofilm from competitive to cooperative system. This is a great study that goes from start to finish on studying community interactions, looking at an evolved phenotype, and understanding the genetic and physiological basis for the adaptation.

Acinetobacter sp. and Pseudomonas putida were raised in a carbon-limited environment with only benzyl alcohol as the carbon source. Acinetobacter can processes the benzyl alcohol, while P. putida is unable to. Acinetobacter takes up the bezyl alcohol and secretes benzoate that P. putida can then use as a carbon source. The research group propagated these in chemostats and looked at different starting concentrations of the organisms. They found that evolved P. putida had a different morphology and did several experiments to determine the relative fitness of the derived and ancestral genotype.

They went on to also map the mutations in P. putida and found two independent mutations in wapH (I think this is the right gene)—a gene involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis. They then engineered the ancestral strain to have a mutation in P. putida and found the rough colony phenotype morphology indistinguishable from the strain derived from experimental evolution.

There are various evolutionary and niche adaptation implications arising from this study. One application to mycology is to how lichens evolved in that an algael cell and a fungal cell must communicate and cooperate.