PZ Meyers has a post summarizing of an older paper from Elliot Meyerowitz (2002) that comapares plant and animal development. In particular there is are some major themes summarized about how plants and animals form patterns and cell to cell signaling as part of development. What’s missing is what we’ve learned about within group comparisons where there are multiple lineages of single-celled and multicelled forms like choanozoa/metazoa (See M. brevicolis genome paper) and green algae (Volvox–Chlamydomonas comparisons are forthcoming, but see Chlamydomonas genome paper).
I hope some of our work will provide more data to include in the comparison of fungal, animal, and plant development in the not too distant future.
What delineates species boundaries in fungi? Much work has been done on biological and phylogenetic species concepts in fungi. Some concepts are reviewed in Taylor et al 2006 and in Taylor et al 2000, and applications can be seen in several pathogens such as Paraccocidiodies, Coccidioides, and the model filamentous (non-pathogenic) fungus Neurospora.
A paper in Fungal Genetics and Biology on species definitions in Cryptococcus neoformans from multi-locus sequencing seeks to provide additional treatment of the observed diversity. A large study of 117 Cryptococcus isolates were examined through multi-locus sequencing (6 loci) and identified two monophyletic lineages within C. neoformans varieties that correspond to var. neoformans and var. grubii. However within the C. gattii samples they identified four monophyletic groups consistent with deep divergences observed from whole genome trees for two strains of C. gattii, MLST, and AFLP studies. By first defining species, we can now test whether any of the species groups have different traits including prevalence in clinical settings and in nature.
BOVERS, M., HAGEN, F., KURAMAE, E., BOEKHOUT, T. (2007). Six monophyletic lineages identified within Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by multi-locus sequence typing. Fungal Genetics and Biology DOI: 10.1016/j.fgb.2007.12.004