A paper in PLoS One, Assessing Performance of Orthology Detection Strategies Applied to Eukaryotic Genomes, reports a new approach to assess the performance of automated orthology detection. These authors also wrote the OrthoMCL (2006 DB paper, 2003 algorithm paper) which uses MCL to build orthologous gene families. The authors discuss the trade-offs between highly
sensitive specific tree-based methods and fast but less sensitive approaches of the Best-Reciprocal-Hits from BLAST or FASTA or some of the hybrid approaches. The authors employ Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to aid in “evaluation and optimization of a comprehensive set of orthology detection methods, providing a guide for selecting methods and appropriate parameters”. LCA is also the statistical basis for feature choice in combing gene predictions into a single set of gene calls in GLEAN written by many of the same authors including Aaron Mackey.
I’ve been reading a lot of orthology and gene tree-species tree reconcilation papers lately, some are listed in Ian Holmes’s group as well as listing some of the software on the BioPerl site. This also follows with on our Phyloinformatics hackathon work which we are trying to formalize in some more documentation for phyloinformatics pipelines to support some of the described use cases. I’m also applying some of this to a tutorial I’m teaching at ISMB2007 this summer.
The New Scientist has an article about the spread of black stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis. We briefly mentioned the 1st release of a Puccinia genome in January. Some more links about the spread of the Ug99 virulent strain.
- USDA information
- USDA information on Barberry & Puccinia graminis where the sexual stage of the fungus occurs.
Kathie Hodge has a nice description with cool photos of a fungus growing in maple syrup. I guess I better make sure our syrup is in the fridge!
I’m including a recapping as many of the talks as I remember. There were 6 concurrent sessions each afternoon so you have to miss a lot of talks. The conference was bursting at the seams as it was- at least 140 people had to be turned away beyond the 750 who attended.
If there was any theme in the conference it was “Hey we are all using these genome sequences we’ve been talking about getting”. I only found the overview talks that solely describe the genome solely a little dry as compared to those more focused on particular questions. I guess my genome palate is becoming refined.
A Fungal Genetics 2007 summary.
Wow. What a meeting! I am still exhausted and not just because of the very late Saturday night dancing at the close of the conference. I will just say anyone who thinks scientists are boring people should witness the passion researchers have for their science and in sharing it with other people. Not to mention that some know how to put on their dancing shoes and let loose. Because of the atmosphere at the Asilomar conference center, it really did feel like I was at a super fun science camp that culminated with a rock band and dancing in the big hall.
I am also digesting the science from the talks and social interactions with a variety of people enthusiastic about mycology, genomes, and evolution (which could be a conference unto itsself). There were presentations on a lot of really great topics, from symbiosis between mycorhizal fungi and plants (Laccaria bicolor) to cell wall structure in Cryptococcus. I got to meet so many people who are making an impact in the fungal community both in their research and in the resources provide online. I will try and re-cap so I can remember everything I saw.
Self and non-self recognition is important for fungi when hyphae interact fuse if they should compartmentalize and undergo apoptosis to kill the heterokaryoton or exchange nutrients. This process is part of cell defense and to limit to the movement of mycoviruses.
A paper in PLOS ONE describes the Genesis of Fungal Non-Self Repertoire. This kind of work goes on down the hall from us as well in the Glass lab among others. This recent paper describes het genes, which contain WD40 repeats and different combinations of these help control specificity. There is of course a diverse literature on this subject especially in Neurospora, and I’m not reviewing it here, but it is an imporant process in understanding how fungi interact with their environment.
We’re at Asilomar mtg for Fungal Genetics 2007. We’ll try and blog a bit about the interesting talks and data.Â I’m curious how many fungal geneticists are in fact reading blogs like these and if this medium will work for idea dissemination.
The Candida clade of Hemiascomycete fungi have received much attention from funding bodies so that many genomic and experimental resources are available address questions of pathogenecity and industrial applications of these species.
The Candida genus
Traditionally, species of yeasts that were thought to be asexual were given the genus name Candida. This has lead to Candida being a sort of taxonomic rubbish bin as this system of classification breaks down when asexuality arises more than once (creating homoplasy). For example, the asexual Candida glabrata is found within the Saccharomyces clade when molecular phylogenetics is applied. The problem lies in that many of these species appear very similar visually and microscopically and so there had not been enough phylogenetically informative phenotypic characters to easily classify them further. With the use of molecular phylogenetics the classifications have been improved as shown in several studies, however we retain the historical nature of the genus and species names for these organisms for the time being even though the phylogenetic diversity of species in the “genus” is much broader than other genus-level classifications. It will be interesting to see whether taxonomic proposals like PhyloCode or traditional revisions of the species names will provide new names for the group.
The Candida Genome Database (CGD) sister to the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) provides resources for phenotype and sequences related to human commensal and dimorphic fungus Candida albicans. A recent paper by Arnaud et al describes the resources that are available through their website. An essentially completed C. albicans diploid genome with curated gene models and annotations provides an essential resource for this model pathogenic system. In addition to the SC5314 strain of C. albicans the white-opaque (WO) strain can switch between different colony morphologies – white and smooth or gray and rod shaped.
6 additional species have had their genomes in the Candida clade have had their genomes sequenced including Pichia stipis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae, Candida tropicalis, Candida guilliermondii, and Lodderomyces elongisporus. These resources will hopefully shed some light on the importance and mechanisms for dimorphic switching in the pathogen C. albicans, the importance and evolution of alternative codon usage in the clade, and better usage of the industrial yeasts like P. stipitis and D. hansenii.
The Saccharomyces Genome Resequencing Project has completed ” ABI sequencing of 32 S. cerevisiae strains and 27 S. paradoxus strains to a depth of between 1x and 3x”. This is in collaboration with Ed Louis’ group who have been working on number of really interesting fungal biology and evolutionary questions. Continue reading Yeast resequencing data updated