Tag Archives: brown rot

2012 Fungal Genomes: a review of mycological genomic accomplishments

2012 was certainly a banner year in genome sequence production and publications. The cost of generating the data keeps dropping and the automation for assembly and annotation continues to improve making it possible for a range of groups to publish genomes.

I made a NCBI PubMed Collection of these here Fungal Genomes 2012

Some notable fungal genome publications include

There were also several new insights into the evolution of wood decay fungi derived from new genomes of basidiomycete fungi. This includes

(Now I might have missed a few in my attempt to get this done before holidays overtake me – if so, please post comments or tweets and I’ll be sure to amend the list on pubmed and here.)

A new trend for fungal genome papers can be seen now in the Genome Announcements of Eukaryotic Cell which aim to get the genome data out quickly with a citateable reference. These are short descriptions which I expect will become more popular ways to insure data made public can also be cited. I only counted about 5 published in 2012 but I expect to see a lot more of these in the 2013 either at EC or other journals. I’m sure there will still be some tension between providers making data public as soon as possible and the sponsoring authors’ desire to have first crack at analyzing and publish interpretations and comparison of the genome(s). The bacterial community has been doing this for Genome Reports in the SIGS journal and the Journal of Bacteriology so will see what happens as these small eukaryotic genomes become even easier to produce.

I look forward to exciting year with more of the 1000 Fungal genomes and other JGI  projects start to roll out more genomes.  I also predict there will be many more resequencing datasets published as functional and population genomics. It will also probably be a countdown for what are the last Sanger sequenced genomes and how the many flavors of next generation sequencing will be optimized for generation.  I am hopeful work on automation of annotation and comparisons will be even easier for more people to use and that we start to provide a shared repository of gene predictions.  I’ve just launched the latter and look forward to engaging more people to contribute to this.

Brown rotting fungal genome published

ResearchBlogging.orgPostia placenta genome is now published in early edition of PNAS.   Brown rotting fungi are import part of the cellulose degrading ecology of the forest as well (hopefully) providing some enzymes that will help in the ligin to biofuels process. Brown rotters break down cellulose but cannot break down lignin or lignocellulose while white rotters (like the previously sequenced Phanerochaete chrysosporium) are able to break down the lignin.  This fungus was chosen for sequencing as it is another potentially helpful fungus in the war on sugars (turning them into fuels) including recently published Trichoderma reesei and 1st basidiomycete genome Phanerochaete (all incidentally with the Diego Martinez as first author – go Diego!). It is also helpful to contrast the white and brown rotters to understand how their enzyme capabilities have changed and how these different lifestyles evolved.  There had been some issues with the initial assembly of this genome which is basically twice as big as one would expect because the dikaryon genome was sequenced – this is where two nuclei with different genomes are present as the result of fusion between two parents of opposite mating types.  When genome sequenced is performed it is hard to assemble these into a single assembly since there are really two haplotypes present.  So these haplotypes have to be sorted out to obtain the gene ‘count’ for the organism for those who like simple numbers. This is a similar situation to the Candida albicans genome, although those haplotypes are much more similar.  The main problem is that one has to generate twice as much sequence to get the same coverage of each haplotype without playing some tricks to collapse them into a consensus and them afterwards separate the haplotypes back out.  At any rate, this sequenced provided a good summary of the gene content and thus metabolic and enzymatic capabilities to match up functional data collected from LC/MS and transcriptional profiling. 

There are several other rotting fungi that are nearly done at JGI (but the task of writing and coordinating the analyses for the papers are ongoing!) include Schizophyllum commune and Pleurotus ostreatus. There are also several more mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic basidiomycete fungi as well as some classic model systems that have finished genomes and are in the process of finalizing papers.  It is an exciting time that is just beginning as these genome and transcriptional data are integrated and compared for their different ecological, morphological, and metabolic capabilities.

The article is unfortunately not Open Access so I haven’t even read it from home yet, but pass along this news to you, dear reader. Will get a chance to read through more than the abstract to see what glistening gems have been extracted from this genomic endeavor.
D. Martinez, J. Challacombe, I. Morgenstern, D. Hibbett, M. Schmoll, C. P. Kubicek, P. Ferreira, F. J. Ruiz-Duenas, A. T. Martinez, P. Kersten, K. E. Hammel, A. V. Wymelenberg, J. Gaskell, E. Lindquist, G. Sabat, S. S. BonDurant, L. F. Larrondo, P. Canessa, R. Vicuna, J. Yadav, H. Doddapaneni, V. Subramanian, A. G. Pisabarro, J. L. Lavin, J. A. Oguiza, E. Master, B. Henrissat, P. M. Coutinho, P. Harris, J. K. Magnuson, S. E. Baker, K. Bruno, W. Kenealy, P. J. Hoegger, U. Kues, P. Ramaiya, S. Lucas, A. Salamov, H. Shapiro, H. Tu, C. L. Chee, M. Misra, G. Xie, S. Teter, D. Yaver, T. James, M. Mokrejs, M. Pospisek, I. V. Grigoriev, T. Brettin, D. Rokhsar, R. Berka, D. Cullen (2009). Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus Postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0809575106

Some links

ResearchBlogging.org

I’ve been too busy to post much these last few days, but here are a few links to some papers I found interesting in my recent browsing.

Schmitt, I., Partida-Martinez, L.P., Winkler, R., Voigt, K., Einax, E., Dölz, F., Telle, S., Wöstemeyer, J., Hertweck, C. (2008). Evolution of host resistance in a toxin-producing bacterial–fungal alliance. The ISME Journal DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2008.19

LEVASSEUR, A. (2008). FOLy: an integrated database for the classification and functional annotation of fungal oxidoreductases potentially involved in the degradation of lignin and related aromatic compounds. Fungal Genetics and Biology DOI: 10.1016/j.fgb.2008.01.004

Shivaji, S., Bhadra, B., Rao, R.S., Pradhan, S. (2008). Rhodotorula himalayensis sp. nov., a novel psychrophilic yeast isolated from Roopkund Lake of the Himalayan mountain ranges, India. Extremophiles DOI: 10.1007/s00792-008-0144-z