Tag Archives: fungus

Some links

ResearchBlogging.org

I’ve been too busy to post much these last few days, but here are a few links to some papers I found interesting in my recent browsing.

Schmitt, I., Partida-Martinez, L.P., Winkler, R., Voigt, K., Einax, E., Dölz, F., Telle, S., Wöstemeyer, J., Hertweck, C. (2008). Evolution of host resistance in a toxin-producing bacterial–fungal alliance. The ISME Journal DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2008.19

LEVASSEUR, A. (2008). FOLy: an integrated database for the classification and functional annotation of fungal oxidoreductases potentially involved in the degradation of lignin and related aromatic compounds. Fungal Genetics and Biology DOI: 10.1016/j.fgb.2008.01.004

Shivaji, S., Bhadra, B., Rao, R.S., Pradhan, S. (2008). Rhodotorula himalayensis sp. nov., a novel psychrophilic yeast isolated from Roopkund Lake of the Himalayan mountain ranges, India. Extremophiles DOI: 10.1007/s00792-008-0144-z

Cryptococcus species deliniation

ResearchBlogging.org What delineates species boundaries in fungi? Much work has been done on biological and phylogenetic species concepts in fungi. Some concepts are reviewed in Taylor et al 2006 and in Taylor et al 2000, and applications can be seen in several pathogens such as Paraccocidiodies, Coccidioides, and the model filamentous (non-pathogenic) fungus Neurospora.

A paper in Fungal Genetics and Biology on species definitions in Cryptococcus neoformans from multi-locus sequencing seeks to provide additional treatment of the observed diversity. A large study of 117 Cryptococcus isolates were examined through multi-locus sequencing (6 loci) and identified two monophyletic lineages within C. neoformans varieties that correspond to var. neoformans and var. grubii. However within the C. gattii samples they identified four monophyletic groups consistent with deep divergences observed from whole genome trees for two strains of C. gattii, MLST, and AFLP studies. By first defining species, we can now test whether any of the species groups have different traits including prevalence in clinical settings and in nature.

BOVERS, M., HAGEN, F., KURAMAE, E., BOEKHOUT, T. (2007). Six monophyletic lineages identified within Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by multi-locus sequence typing. Fungal Genetics and Biology DOI: 10.1016/j.fgb.2007.12.004

Neurospora speciation through experimental evolution

ResearchBlogging.orgDettman, Anderson, and Kohn recently published a paper in BMC Evolutionary Biology on reproductive experimental evolution in two Neurospora crassa populations evolved under different selective conditions. This is a great study that complements work published last year in Nature on experimental evolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations. Neurospora populations were evolved under high salt and low temperature and were started from either high diversity (interspecific crosses, N. crassa vs N. intermedia) or low diversity (intraspecific cross, two N. crassa isolates D143 (Louisiana, USA)and D69 (Ivory Coast)) as described in Figure 1. The experimentally evolved populations were then tested for asexual and sexual fitness (they were taken through complete meiotic cycle throughout the experiment to avoid insure there was selection on the sexual reproduction pathway.

Continue reading Neurospora speciation through experimental evolution

Onygenales genome cluster

I’m excited about our projects to tackle the evolution of the Onygenales fungi.

I just remembered to look and see what was going on with the Blastomyces genome sequencing at WashU.  I checked and the Blastomyces dermatitidis genome sequence assembly version 3 was released in October 2007 and ESTs via 454 and ABI technologies are all available from WUSTL Genome Sequencing Center.

With the Broad Institute release this week of the Paracoccidioides genome sequence, the 10 Coccidioides strain genomes + 1 C. posadasii strain from JCVI/TIGR, 3 strains of Histoplasma capsulatum (both WUSTL and Broad), and the in-progress dermatophyte for Trichophyton and Microsporum sequences that are being generating through the FGI at Broad we have incredible genome coverage of this group of dermatophyte, keratin loving, and often animal pathogenic fungi.

I know I’ve been accused of being too positive announcing these things, but I do think analyses here are going to be as rich for comparisons as any old 12 flies.

This fungus will trap you (if you are a Nematode)

Blogging about Peer-Reviewed ResearchFungi, like most organisms, take an active role in finding food for survival. When thinking about hostile takeovers by fungi, one probably thinks about mycelia growing towards nutrients, rotting plant matter, the ability to extract nutrients from a living host, or perhaps producing toxins or secondary metabolites that can affect the host. However, some fungi can take an even more active role and trap their animal hosts (when that animal isn’t much bigger than you). A paper from earlier this year on “Evolution of nematode-trapping cells of predatory fungi of the Orbiliaceae based on evidence from rRNA-encoding DNA and multiprotein sequences” describes the evolutionary history of a group of fungi able to trap and eat nematodes. Nematode trapping fungi have been investigated experimentally since at least the 30s (Drechsler, Mycologia. 1937, Drechsler, J Wash Acad Sci. 1933), and some more recent studies of the relationship of the groups (Rubner, Studies in Mycology. 1996).

In the recent PNAS paper, the authors used multi-locus sequencing to reconstruct a phylogeny and history of large group of carnivorous fungi and reconstruct the ancestral history the prey trapping mechanism of either through constricting rings or adhesive traps. They were able to reconstruct the likely order of the evolutionary steps needed to make the stalk and trapping cells. They found that the most common type of trap, an Adhesive Network, was the earliest evolved trap.

Some movies also demonstrate how these fungi make their living.

Fungal Genetics 2007 details

I’m including a recapping as many of the talks as I remember. There were 6 concurrent sessions each afternoon so you have to miss a lot of talks. The conference was bursting at the seams as it was- at least 140 people had to be turned away beyond the 750 who attended.

If there was any theme in the conference it was “Hey we are all using these genome sequences we’ve been talking about getting”. I only found the overview talks that solely describe the genome solely a little dry as compared to those more focused on particular questions. I guess my genome palate is becoming refined.

Continue reading Fungal Genetics 2007 details